ISIN.com can assist your company with its bond offerings.
What is a bond?
In finance, a bond is a debt security, in which the authorized issuer owes the holders a debt and, depending on the terms of the bond, is obliged to pay interest (the coupon) to use and/or to repay the principal at a later date, termed maturity. A bond is a formal contract to repay borrowed money with interest at fixed intervals (ex semi annual, annual, sometimes monthly).
Thus a bond is like a loan: the holder of the bond is the lender (creditor), the issuer of the bond is the borrower (debtor), and the coupon is the interest. Bonds provide the borrower with external funds to finance long-term investments, or, in the case of government bonds, to finance current expenditure. Certificates of deposit (CDs) or commercial paper are considered to be money market instruments and not bonds.
Bonds and stocks are both securities, but the major difference between the two is that (capital) stockholders have an equity stake in the company (i.e., they are owners), whereas bondholders have a creditor stake in the company (i.e., they are lenders). Another difference is that bonds usually have a defined term, or maturity, after which the bond is redeemed, whereas stocks may be outstanding indefinitely. An exception is a consol bond, which is a perpetuity (i.e., bond with no maturity).
Issuance of the Bond
Bonds are issued by public authorities, credit institutions, companies and supranational institutions in the primary markets. The most common process of issuing bonds is through underwriting. In underwriting, one or more securities firms or banks, forming a syndicate, buy an entire issue of bonds from an issuer and re-sell them to investors. The security firm takes the risk of being unable to sell on the issue to end investors. Primary issuance is arranged by bookrunners who arrange the bond issue, have the direct contact with investors and act as advisors to the bond issuer in terms of timing and price of the bond issue. The bookrunners’ willingness to underwrite must be discussed prior to opening books on a bond issue as there may be limited appetite to do so.
In the case of government bonds, these are usually issued by auctions, called a public sale, where both members of the public and banks may bid for bond. Since the coupon is fixed, but the price is not, the percent return is a function both of the price paid as well as the coupon. However, because the cost of issuance for a publicly auctioned bond can be cost prohibitive for a smaller loan, it is also common for smaller bonds to avoid the underwriting and auction process through the use of a private placement bond. In the case of a private placement bond, the bond is held by the lender and does not enter the large bond market
Sometimes the documentation allows the issuer to borrow more at a later date by issuing further bonds on the same terms as before, but at the current market price. This is called a tap issue or bond tap
ISIN.com assists companies worldwide with their 144A Bonds.
Regulation S and Global Note
ISIN.com assists companies worldwide with their Regulation S (Reg S) and Global Note offerings.